Low precious transition metal content in PEM fuel cells catalysts
Catalysts currently used in polymer electrolyte (PEM) fuel cell cathodes include platinum (Pt) nanoparticles supported on a non-catalytic material (carbonaceous carrier or conductive oxides). These catalysts require a relatively high mass of precious transition metal. A 100 kW battery for a car contains 40 g of platinum. One of the factors affecting this technology is the price, due to the high cost of platinum. Another disadvantage is the poisoning of such catalysts by a large number of chemicals that can come from either the fuel or the air used at the cathode.
The invention concerns the synthesis of hybrid platinum (Pt) and iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) catalysts for electrochemical reduction of oxygen to water in fuel cells. As the catalyst is stable in stack operation, the amount of Pt incorporated can be reduced compared to conventional catalysts, thus significantly reducing the cost of the catalyst.
PEM fuel cell type